Photovoltaic Power in Denmark
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 2007 Denmark had approximately 1,500 installations with total 3 MWp installed capacity and an output of 2 mio. kWh per year


The advantage of photoelecric panels to thermal collectors is the permanent outlet to the grid of all excessive electricity turning the electricity meter backwards with full savings on tax and VAT and that government encourages the installation with a 40% subsidy. The photoelectic panels are maintenace-free - which all in all make them more attractive to the domestic user than thermal collectors. A share of a wind power plant at sea is, however, even more attractive.


1997 a "Solar Village" with 30 photovoltaic plants of 1 - 3 kW each were installed on houses in Brĉdstrup, Denmark. In 1999 additional 300 houses in Denmark are equipped with a total of 750 kW panels in large scale test. In 2003 a third project is launched - SUN1000 - with a total capacity of one MWp. Crystalline cells absorbing 10-20% of incoming sunlight are used. On a sunny day with a sun radiation of 1 kW per m2 the output is 100 - 200 W per m2.

In Denmark the sun shines 1600 - 1800 hours a year and the total incoming sun light is per year app. 1,000 kWh/m2 horizontal and 1,200 kWh/m2 on panels angled 42 degrees. As a rule of thumb a 10 m2 panel has the capacity of one kWp max. effect, yields 1000 kWh a year and costs 60,000 DKK ~ 10,000 USD.

2004: EnergiMidt A/S has been contracted to install 32 pcs. BP 5170S á 170 Wp (Total: 41m2; 5,44 kWp) plus 2 pcs. Fronius inverters type "Sunrise Maxi with ENS". Installation is made by BP Solar during September 2004. Total cost is 275.000 DKK. Our share is 165.000,00 DKK and the Danish State takes care of the rest. Yield is supposed to be 100 kWh annual per m2  ~ 4,000-4,500 kWh/year. The profit is tax-free. Profit does not match that of windmills (14% p.a. tax-free), but increasing price of electricity will narrow the gab. (The panels were replaced by BP Solar October 2007 with type BP4165N due to faulty electrical insulation on BP5170S. Pmax for BP4165N is 165 Wp)

The investment of 275,000 DKK is 65 DKK/kWh annual output.(Compare to 3.1 DKK/kWh annual output from a wind turbine or 10 DKK/kWh annual output from thermal collectors)

The capacity of solar energy plants is stated as Wp (Watt-peak) when exposed to 1000 W/m2 of sun rays at 25 oC.


Relative yield at various orientation and inclination with south and 45o put at index 100.

Orientation

 

Inclination

West

W-SW

S-SW

South

S-SE

E-SE

East

86

86

86

86

86

86

86

15°

84

89

93

94

99

100

97

93

90

85

30°

81

90

97

97

91

82

45°

77

89

97

98

90

79

60°

72

85

93

94

86

73

75°

65

77

86

89

86

78

66

90°

57

67

75

77

75

68

58

 Electricity produced by a 1 kWp panel oriented south and inclined 45o.
Yield