Starch and Glucose Glossary

Acid conversion. Starch hydrolysis with acid as the catalyst

Acid treated starch or Acid-thinned starch. Granular starch slightly hydrolysed with acid at low temperature.

Acetylated distarch adipate. Acetylated starch crosslinked by adipate groups.

Acetylated distarch phosphate. Crosslinked starch esterified with acetyl groups.

Acetyl value. Acetyl value of a modified starch is % of acetyl groups calculated on starch dry matter. Method: ISI 14 Determination of Acetyl. Content.

Acetylated starch. Granular starch ester with a CH3CO-group introduced at low temperature

Adjunct. Malt substitute. Adjunct syrup is used as a brewing supplement and booster - see wort syrup.

Alkali lability. Substituents of a modified starch removable by hydrolysis with alkali is titrated. Method: ISI 23 Determination of Alkali Lability.

Alkali number. Alkali Number  is a measure of the average molecular weight of the starch and expressed as ml  0.1N sodium hydroxide, consumed under test conditions.

Amaranth. Amaranth - a common name used for plants with blossoms that do not readily fade when picked.

Amphoteric starch is modified starch which both cationic and anionic substituents. f.e. cationic potato starch. 

Amylase. Amylase is an enzyme breaking down starch at random. For the liquefaction an a-amylase of bacterial origin is used. For high maltose syrups a -amylase is applied for saccharification

Amyloglucosidase (AMG). Enzyme cutting off glucose from the non-reducing end of starch. AMG cuts both 1-4 and 1-6 bonds and enables the manufacture of up to 98 DE syrups, acting optimal on molecules that are 4-5 glucose units long

Amylopectin. For most starches amylopectin is the major component, and amylose the minor component. Amylopectin is a branched glucose polymer with typically one 1-6 glucosidic bonds for every 12 glucose units. Amylopectin consists of several 100.000 glucose units.

Amylose. The minor constituent of starch is amylose - a linear glucose polymer with alpha 1-4 glucosidic bonds only. Amylose may contain 200-2000 anhydroglucose units.

Anhydroglucose unit The glucose unit of amylose and amylopectin minus one molecule of water.

Anhydrous dextrose. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose.

Arrowroot. Arrowroots belong to the family Marantaceae. The true arrowroot plant is classified as Maranta arundinacea.

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BAN. Brand name of bacterial a -amylase hydrolysing 1,4-a -glucosidic linkages at random.

Banana. Banana make up the genus Musa of the family Musaceae. The plantain, or cooking banana, is classified as Musa x paradisiaca.

Barley. Barley, common name for any of a genus of cereal grasses, native to north temperate regions, and one of the most ancient of cultivated plants.

Barley malt. Barley malt is processed from grain, and retains about 40% of its complex carbohydrates. The remaining sugar composition is 42% maltose, 6% glucose, and about 1% fructose.

Baum (oBe). Density is measured in Baum: oBe = 145 - 145/specific gravity at 60 oF. The commercial Baum = oBe + 1 is used within the glucose industry. Baum tables.

Bioethanol. Bioethanol (Ethyl alcohol, ethanol, etanol, alcohol) is made by yeast fermentation of starch or starch crops. A second generation of bioethanol is made from agricultural cellulosic byproducts.

Black pearl. Black spheres made of tapioca starch and used as a chewy constituent of bubble tea.

Brabender. Brabender Viscograph is the industry standard in determination og starch viscoisty.

Brix. Brix (oBx). Percentage (w/w) of a sucrose solution. See table for conversion: Beaume - Brix - Dry matter of Glucose Syrups.

Brown rice syrup. Brown rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches.

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Carbohydrate. Monosaccahrides or natural organic substance giving monosaccharides by hydrolysis e.g. starch, sugars, cellulose, glucose, fructose, maltose.

Carbon treatment. Activated carbon is used for decolorization and purification of hydrolysates.

Cassava. Cassava belong to the family Euphorbiaceae

Cassava Flour. Cassava Flour is a white pure nutritious food extracted from fresh roots and useful as wheat flour extender.

Cationic starch. Granular cationic starch ether used in papermaking due to its affinity to cellulose fibres and thereby reducing BOD.

Chemical gain. The increase of dry substance by hydrolysation of starch. Molecular weight of dextrose = 180. Molecular weight of Anhydrous Glucose Unit (AGU) of starch = 162. By converting one AGU into dextrose a chemical gain of 18 is achieved equivalent to 11.1%.

Chips. Chips Sliced and dried cassava roots.

Chiral Means "handedness" - A chiral or asymmetric molecule is one which can be distinguished from its mirror image.

Chromatography. Method for industrial separation of glucose and fructose on a resin-filled column.

CIP Cleaning In Place - Read TM 23 CIP.

Concentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice is a relatively new sweetener. It is highly refined, decolorized and at 68% soluble sugar, is relatively concentrated.

Conversion. Synonym of conversion hydrolysis or hydrolysis.

Converter. Apparatus for the hydrolysis of starch.

Corn gluten feed. Corn gluten feed is a medium protein by-product, along with fibre and residual starch

Corn gluten meal. Corn gluten meal is a high-protein, high-energy ingredient consisting of protein (gluten) and yellow pigments separated in the corn wet-milling process.

Corn oil. Corn oil is widely used as a cooking oil and for margarine.

Crystallisation. In concentrated high DE syrups glucose crystals are formed and precipitate.

Curdlan - a fermentation-produced polysaccharide as is Xanthan, and Gellan.

CWS Starch. - Cold Water Soluble Starch are made by cooking and spray drying or by alkali/alcohol technology to allow for hydration without cooking. Starches labeled instant, granular or cold water-swelling are made that way.

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DE. Dextrose Equivalent expresses the number of aldehyde groups - reducing ends - relative to pure glucose of same concentration

Derivative. Another term for chemically modified starch e.g. oxidised starch.

Dextrin. Industrial dextrin is granular starch with molecules reorganised by roasting causing the granules to be cold water soluble. Depending on the degree of roasting dextrins are grouped as White Dextrin, Yellow Dextrin and British gum.

Dextrose. Synonym for glucose. Within the industry dextrose is used to describe 100 % pure glucose. Both the anhydrous and the monohydrate form is used.

Dextrose monohydrate. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization. Produced from high DE syrup by crystallization under controlled cooling. The continuous vertical crystallizer has advantages, but not completely outdid the classic horizontal batch crystallizer.

Dextrose anhydrous. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose. Produced from high DE syrup by crystallization above 60 oC. 

Dextrozyme. Brand name of a pullulanase and AMG mixture

DP. Degree of Polymerisation is the average number of monosaccharides in a polymer.

Disaccaharide. Carbohydrate with two monosaccharides per molecule, e.g. sucrose, maltose. Sucrose is a disaccharide with one glucose and one fructose per molecule.

DS. (1) Dry Substance = Dry Matter (DM). (2) Degree of Substitution.

DX. Dextrose

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Enzyme. Three groups of enzyme catalysts are used in the glucose industry: (1) Alpha-amylase for liquefaction, (2) Amyloglucosidase for sachharification and (3) isomerase for conversion of glucose to fructose.

Enzyme conversion. A two step hydrolysis: Liquefaction with a-amylase and saccharification with amyloglucosidase.

Ethylated starch. Starch, 2-hydroxyethyl ether improves coating and ink holdout. It has good film-forming and produces superior printing paper

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Fructose. Fructose   Alpha-D-fructose is an isomer of alpha-D-glucose. Standard fructose syrup contains as much as 42% fructose and enriched syrups as much as 55%. High concentration of fructose is achieved by chromatography.

Fungamyl. Brand name of fungal amylase hydrolysing 1,4-a -glucosidic linkages in formation of substantial amounts of maltose.

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Gari. Gari is a processed fermented cassava food.

Gelatinisation. Cooking starch.

Gellan Gum is a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas elodea. It is used as a food thickener, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It has E number E418.

Glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide, C6H12O6 existing as a - and -glucose with an optical rotation of +105.2o respectively +20,3o. The synonym dextrose refers to the positive direction of rotation (dextra = right)

Glucose Syrup. Glucose syrup is a liquid starch hydrolysate of mono- di- and higher saccharides.

Granular starch. Starch are formed in plants as tiny granules preserved in starches modified at low temperatures.

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High Fructose Syrup. High Fructose Syrup is a liquid starch hydrolysate with a high content of fructose - typically 42, 55 or 90% fructose

HFCS. HFCS = High Fructose Corn Syrup is identical to HFSS.

HFSS. HFSS = High Fructose Starch-based Syrup. HFSS-42 contains 42% fructose and is an all-purpose sweetener. HFSS-55 contains 55% fructose and substitutes sucrose. HFSS-90 contains 90% fructose.

Honey. Honey is a natural invert sugar. It is estimated to be approximately 25% sweeter than table sugar

HSH. Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH), - polyglycitol syrups - are found in a variety of foods. They serve as bulk sweeteners, viscosity or bodying agents, humectants (moisture retaining ingredient), crystallization modifiers etc. just like sorbitol. HSH and sorbitol are made the same way, but from starch hydrolysates of different Dextrose Equivalent (DE) and different composition.

Hydrol. Mother liquor left by crystallisation of dextrose from glucose syrup.

Hydrolysis. Break down of starch to glucose and smaller polymers by cutting glucosidic bonds with simultaneously uptake of water. Industrial hydrolysis is a two step operation: liquefaction and saccharification.

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Invert sugar. Hydrolysed sucrose

Ion exchange. Deionization of the hydrolysate in columns of ion exchange resins.

Isomerase. Enzyme rearranging glucose into fructose. The process reaches a feasible equilibrium with 42% fructose, 53% glucose and 5% higher sugars.

Isomerisation. Restructuring of glucose to fructose

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Jet cooker. Apparatus for continuos gelatinisation of starch by direct steam injection

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Karl Kroyer. Karl Kroyer is the Danish inventor of the continuous glucose process.

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Liquefaction. Partial hydrolysis of cooked starch followed by a viscosity reduction. Depending on the catalyst the DE of the liquefied starch is 15 - 25.

Liquid sugar. Commercial syrup made by hydrolysing sucrose (invert sugar) or by inverting glucose enzymatically.

Lysine. L.lysine is an essential amino acide made by fermentation of starch sugars. 

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Maize. Maize or Corn, common name for a cereal grass widely grown for food and livestock fodder

Maltitol. Maltitol is a polyol like sorbitol.

Maltodextrin. Liquefied starch below 20 DE. Food applications as a carrier and extender.

Maltose. A disaccharide of glucose. -amylase is used for maltose rich syrups.

Maltose syrup. Starch syrup high in maltose, typically 45-50% in ordinary conversion syrup and 65-80% in high maltose syrup.

Mannitol. Isomer of sorbitol

Maple syrup. Maple syrup, concentrated from the sap of maple trees, is a uniquely American product.

Millet. Millet belongs to the genera Echinochloa, Milium, Panicum, Pennisetum, and Setana all within the family Poaceae (or Gramineae

Modification. Modification is a process, in which native starch is modified by physical and chemical means to suit various industrial applications, e.g. esterification.

Molasses. Molasses, if manufactured as an end product and not as a by-product of commercial sugar production, can be a good choice of sweeteners.

Monosaccharide. The smallest unit obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates, e. g. glucose, and fructose. Glucose is the monosaccharide obtained by hydrolysis of starch.

MSG. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is made by fermentation of starch sugars. It is also known as the "third spice".

Mung bean starch has 37% amylose and produces a strong gel. Mung bean starch is the prime material for making clear starch noodles, however, it is much more expensive than tapioca starch often used as a replacement.

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Native starch. Native starches designate starch in its natural unmodified form no modification, e.g. native starch from potato, cassava, maize, rice, wheat.

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Oat. Oat belongs to the genus Avena of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae)

Oligosaccharide. Carbohydrate giving 2 - 6 monosaccharides by hydrolysis

Oxidised starch. Granular starch with carboxyl groups introduced by oxygenation. Its performance in paper is proven, reduces linting and Improves short-fiber bonding.

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Plantain. Banana make up the genus Musa of the family Musaceae. The plantain, or cooking banana, is classified as Musa x paradisiaca.

Polyol. Polyol - polyglycitol - is a family of sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol etc. Like sorbitol, they have a wide range af applications.

Polysaccharide. Carbohydrate giving more than 6 monosaccharides by hydrolysis, e.g. amylopectin, amylose, cellulose.

Potato. Potatoes are produced by plants of the genus Solanum, of the family Solanaceae.

Precoat filtration. Hydrolysate filtration on a filter precoated with filter aid and activated carbon.

Pregelatinised. Pregelatinised starch = cooked and dried starch.

Promozyme. Brand name of pullulanase reducing oligosaccharides after liquefaction

Pullulanase. Pullulan 6-glucanohyrolase catalysing the hydrolysis of 1,6-alpha linkages in pullulan and amylopectin and only acts on molecules with at least two 1,4 bonds.

Pulp. The wet residue of tuber and roots after starch extraction. Pulp from potato and cassava is excelent cattle feed.

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Retrogradation. Starch crystallisation. Linear chains of starch are able to form crystalline structures - crystallites - causing staling in bread and milky appearance or syneresis in starch gels.

Rice. Rice makes up the genus Oryza of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae).

Rice syrup, brown. Brown rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches

Rye. Rye belongs to the family Poaceae (or Gramineae). It is classified as Secale cereale

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Saccharification. Hydrolysis of starch into higher DE syrups after liquefaction.

Sago. Sago starch is prepared from the pith of several genera of palms

Second Generation. With new improved cellulolytic enzymes a whole crop can be turned into biofuel, meaning that both starch and cellulose can be digested. This improves yield or make it even possible just to use the cellulosic parts of the plants saving grain for human nutrition. Second generation biofuel is made that way. This principle may just as well be applied in the process of making starch sweeteners like glucose and for beer etc. Direct hydrolysis of combined starch and cellulosic material increases yield and may do away with cumbersome filtration of cellulosic fibres.

Sorbitol. Sorbitol  - a sugar alcohol - obtained by hydrogenation of glucose.

Sorghum. Sorghum makes up the genus Sorghum in the family Poaceae (or Gramineae).

Sucanat. Sucanat (SUgar CAne NATural) is a brand name for organically grown, dehydrated cane juice.

Sucrose. Sucrose = ordinary sugar from cane or beet is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Synonyms: Saccharose, sugar.

Sugar. Sugar = white table sugar is pure sucrose.

Starch. Starch; is a polymer of glucose found as a reserve in most plants. Another glucose polymer found in plants is cellulose. Compared to cellulose, starch is made up of alpha glucosidic bonds, which cause helix-shaped molecules, while cellulose build with beta glucosidic bonds giving straight molecules and a fibrous structure. In plants starch is organised in 1-140 m granules.

Starch ester. Modified starch with ester groupings like acetylated starch and starch monophosphate. Potato starch is a natural starch phosphate ester.

Starch ether. Modified starch with ether groupings like hydroxypropyl-starch,  cationic starch and carboxymethyl starch

Starch succinate. Anionic starch esterified by succinate groups. The starch may also be crosslinking.

Starch xanthate. Starch esterified by xanthate groups.

Stein-Hall. In the Stein-Hall corrugating process a carrier is prepared by gelatinising 10-20% of the starch using heat and caustic soda. The paste is diluted with water and native granular starch is then added.

Sucanat. Sucanat (SUgar CAne NATural) is a brand name for organically grown, dehydrated cane juice.

Sweet potato. Sweet potato belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is classified as Ipomoea batatas

Sweetzyme. Brand name of immobilised glucose isomerase

Syneresis. The free setting of water from a starch gel caused by retrogradation.

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Termamyl. Brand name of heat-stable a -amylase hydrolysing 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages at random.

Thinboiling starch. Acid treated and oxidised starches with low paste viscosity used in paper and textile

Total Sugar. Total sugar is high DE-dextrose syrup solidified by evaporation and subsequent instant crystallization.

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Vegetable oil. Cooking oils are edible oils extracted from olives, soybeans and oil seeds.

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Wheat. Wheat makes up the genus Triticum of the family Gramineae

Wheat Starch. In EU wheat starch is an important starch.

White dextrin. Produced by gentle roasting of acidified starch

Wort syrup. Glucose or maltose syrup used as a carbohydrate source (adjunct) in breweries for increasing capacity, adjusting protein content, taste, mouthfeel etc.

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Xanthan gum - a fermentation-produced polysaccharide. Xanthan is used as a viscous food additive. It is made by fermentation of glucose by Xanthomonas campestris bacterium.

Xylitol. Polyol with five hydroxyl groups. Its relative sweetness compared to sucrose is between 80 and 100.

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Yam. Yams make up the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae.

Yellow dextrin or Canary dextrin. Produced by roasting acidified starch. It is cold water soluble. Used as a glue and has a good tack.

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